Garden gates can swing two ways

My latest Radar essay makes the modest proposal that Facebook might, in some cases, syndicate my data from elsewhere rather than requiring me to type it in. Most people think that’ll never happen. Paulo Eduardo Neves sums up why not:

I don’t think they have any intention to open gates in their walled garden.

Of course garden gates can work two ways. They can keep things in or out. We can all appreciate why Facebook wants to keep things in. But is it really in Facebook’s interest to keep things out? That would require Facebook to become the home for all of our photos, our calendars, and every other stream of data we create. What a burden! Why not let a decentralized internet carry some of that burden?

What’s matters most to Facebook, I should think, isn’t my photos and my calendars, but the surrounding interaction that it can uniquely enable, capture, and monetize. Couldn’t inbound syndication amplify that interaction? Dunno, just asking.

Liberating the Swamp Bats calendar

One of the great pleasures of summer in Keene, NH is our New England Collegiate Baseball League team, the Swamp Bats. I tell people that going to one of the Bats’ home games at the high school’s Alumni Field is like winding the clock back fifty years and bringing a Norman Rockwell painting to life. Fans arrive early and set up lawn chairs along the first base line. Kids run potato sack or frozen T-shirt races between innings. College players from teams around the country, some destined for the big show, remind you how sweet the little show can be.

Of course the Swamp Bats schedule should syndicate through Keene’s calendar hub. And last year it did. The Swamp Bats site was using Google Calendar, which provides an iCalendar feed, so I just added that feed to the hub.

This year there’s a new website based on the Joomla content management system. When I first looked at its rendering of the schedule, my heart sank. The iCalendar feed was gone!

On closer inspection, though, I found that it was still lurking in the background. The sites’ calendar is served up by a Joomla component called GCalendar which wraps an instance of GoogleCalendar. Why? The documentation explains:

No longer are you forced to use an i-frame and settle for a less then ideal look. Now you can integrate a Google Calendar directly into your website – using AJAX. This extension pulls directly from your Google Calendar within Google and displays it directly on your website.

Fair enough. The standard IFrame method for displaying a Google Calendar widget is, indeed, less than ideal. But in the process of wrapping the widget so that webmasters can make pages that look nicer, the iCalendar feed was left on the cutting room floor. That deprives visitors to the Swamp Bats website of the opportunity to add the Swamp Bats calendar to their personal calendar programs. It also prevents the Swamp Bats calendar from syndicating through an elmcity hub or directly to media outlets.

This omission isn’t an exception, it’s more like the rule. Web designers and builders obsess about how sites look, but typically ignore how they connect — or don’t — to the emerging web of data. As a result, I had to ferret out the hidden Google Calendar in order to connect the Swamp Bats schedule to the elmcity hub.

After some poking around I found it by viewing the source of the month view, which looks like this:

It’s not obvious, but if you click the down arrow above June 2011 a list expands:

In the HTML source for the list, two Google Calendar IDs appear:

<input type="checkbox" 
  checked="checked" onclick="updateGCalendarFrame(this)"/>
<td><font color="#6b49b0">Keene Swamp Bats</font></td>
<input type="checkbox" 
  checked="checked" onclick="updateGCalendarFrame(this)"/></td>
<td><font color="#9e8462">Keene Swamp Bats Away</font></td>

A Google Calendar ID is an email address at the root of a family of related URLs you can use to embed the calendar’s widget on a page, or subscribe to the calendar’s public (or maybe private) feed. In this case I’m after the public feed. Here’s how you form its URL from a root email address: + EmailAddress + /public/basic.ics

Applying the rule to the first item in the list1 produces this iCalendar feed. I plugged its URL into the Keene hub, and now it knows that the Bats are playing the Holyoke Blue Sox tonight at Alumni Field:

I’ve also subscribed to the feed in Outlook, so I can see the games as an overlay on my personal calendar. Another Swamp Bats fan could do the same in Google Calendar, or Hotmail Calendar, or Apple iCal, or any other standard calendar program.

All’s well that ends well, I suppose, but geez, it really shouldn’t be this hard. Web designers and builders ought to think like the web. If you regard the web is an interactive experience, they do. But the web is also an ecosystem of linked data. That way of thinking has, so far, tragically failed to sink in.

Web pros! Wake up! There’s more to this game than achieving the “ideal look.” When you are working with data, please make it available as data to the people and the systems that need it.

1 What about the second item? That calendar is empty. It seems the intent was to provide two calendars, one for home games and the other for away games. But in fact, for some reason, the first calendar has both, and the second has none.

Syndicating Facebook events

My wife Luann showed her new art work at a local venue last Saturday. Here’s how the event looked in Keene’s elmcity hub:

It got there by way of a new technique I just added to elmcity’s repertoire. Until now, the only way to syndicate events from Facebook through an elmcity hub was the one described here. In that scenario a curator asks an elmcity hub to search Facebook for public events in the hub’s location. This hasn’t worked well. If you use Facebook’s API to search for public events using the term Keene, NH you’ll find events, but only ones that include Keene, NH in the event’s title. Events that mention Keene, NH in the location field are oddly missing.

So until now, if you wanted to use Facebook to promote a public event in Keene, you had to use Keene, NH in the title to get it to work. Being married to me, Luann knows to do that, and her event was already appearing in the hub. But for most people this sort of hack will (and should) be a non-starter.

Even if Facebook’s API worked the way I’d expect, and could find public events by location rather than just by name, it’s not really the right thing. The elmcity model puts event owners in charge of data feeds that hubs (and other consumers) access at specified URLs. It’s nice to know that your public events in Facebook can be found via search. But if you want to syndicate those events through a hub you’d rather publish an explicit feed URL.

It turns out that you can, but in an odd way that requires some explaining and raises important questions about the evolving landscape of online identity. The new elmcity technique relies on the Export link at the bottom of Facebook’s Events page. The label, Export, connotes private use of the iCalendar feed behind that link. The feed is primarily for Facebook users who want to sync their Facebook Events pages to their personal calendars. When you click the link, you’re shown an URL like this:


If you change webcal to http you’ve got one of those special sharing URLs that are public, in the sense that they live on the open web, but also private, in the sense that they’re not discoverable. You wouldn’t use this kind of URL for anything really sensitive. But it can be appropriate for calendars, or friends-and-family photo galleries, or other cases where security-by-obscurity is a reasonable tradeoff.

Syndicating Facebook events

When I fetched the URL for Luann’s Facebook events, by way of her Export link, I had an iCalendar feed that was a mixed bag. It included events to which Luann had been invited by friends; those events were marked private. It also included the event that Luann was promoting; that one was marked public. Ideally Facebook would provide a separate URL for just Luann’s (or any Facebook user’s) public events. There would be nothing secret about that URL, it could be shared freely on the open web.

Lacking such an URL from Facebook, elmcity has to synthesize it. To do so, it filters the private feed to include only events that meet two criteria:

  1. They belong to the Facebook user, not to a Facebook friend of that user.

  2. They are marked public.

Here are the iCalendar properties that enable such filtering:


In this example, when I excluded everything in Facebook’s iCalendar feed that wasn’t organized by Luann, and wasn’t public, I was left with a feed containing just one event: Luann’s art opening. That’s the feed I wanted to tell the Keene hub to subscribe to.

My first thought was to use the normal elmcity mechanism for subscribing a hub to calendar feeds. The hub’s curator bookmarks the feed in a designated Delicious account. In this case, there would need to be an extra bit of metadata to enable the hub to filter the feed properly. It could easily find events marked PUBLIC. But how would it know to find Luann’s public events? For that it would need the name of a Facebook user, in this case Luann’s name.

At first blush that seemed easy to solve. The elmcity service uses Delicious tags to convey metadata to hubs. I could define a new convention like so:

The combination of the trusted and ics and feed tags is the normal way a curator tells a hub that the bookmarked URL is an iCalendar feed that the hub should try to process. The who=Luann+Udell tag would be extra metadata telling the hub to restrict a Facebook calendar feed to only the events organized by the named Facebook user.

Problem solved? Unfortunately no. Do you see why not? This mechanism leaks private information. Although the elmcity hub isn’t going to publish anything other than Luann’s public event, her Facebook feed also contains a private event from Judy. Anyone who scans the feeds for the Keene hub would see the unfiltered URL and could find Judy’s private event.

If the architecture of elmcity were more typical, this wouldn’t be a problem. Curators would create accounts at elmcity, they’d log into those accounts to add feeds, the lists of feeds subscribed to by hubs would be hidden from the world. But elmcity does things differently. Hubs are transparent conduits through which public information flows. They reveal their sources. Nothing needs to be hidden, and so nothing is hidden. Curators do their work out in the open. Communities served by elmcity hubs can see how those hubs are constituted.

If Facebook provided a Publish link for public events, along with an Export link for all events, then it could participate directly in elmcity-style calendar syndication. Since Facebook doesn’t offer a Publish link, elmcity needs to receive the Export link from curators by way of some private channel of communication.

Syndicating Facebook events privately

If the architecture of elmcity were more typical, curators would have accounts at elmcity and would use those accounts to send private messages to the service. But again, elmcity does things differently. You shouldn’t have to create an account for everything under the sun. You already have plenty of perfectly good accounts. Why not reuse them?

The relationship between elmcity and Delicious is one example of such reuse. A curator creates a new elmcity hub by designating a Delicious account to control it. If the administrator of the elmcity service deems the proposed new hub legitimate, he or she (so far, just me) tells the service to use that Delicious account to specify the hub’s settings and list its feed URLs.

There’s an analogous relationship between elmcity and Twitter. If a hub’s Delicious settings name a curator’s Twitter account, then Twitter becomes a channel for private messages between the curator and the hub. For example, a curator can send a Twitter direct message to the hub that simply says: start. When the hub receives the start message, it immediately refreshes all the hub’s feeds instead of waiting for the next scheduled refresh.

Until recently that was the only control message that a curator could send to a hub. But now there’s another: add_fb_feed. From my Twitter account I just sent a direct message to the elmcity service’s Twitter account. The message said:

add_fb_feed id=652...115 key=AQD...qcT who=Luann+Udell category=art

Which means the following:

  1. Make this Facebook iCalendar URL:;.115&key=AQD…qcT

  2. Restrict it to public events organized by Luann Udell

  3. Use art as the tag for events in this feed

The hub read that message and responded:

elmcity received your add_fb_feed command

And then:

facebook feed successfully added

This isn’t ideal. Curators still need to trust the elmcity service not to disclose URLs sent through the private Twitter channel. Such disclosure could happen in any of the following ways:

  • The operator of the elmcity service gives up the data on purpose. I wouldn’t, of course, but it’s theoretically possible.

  • The elmcity service gives up the data accidentally. It’s just software; mistakes happen.

  • A curator gives up the data either accidentally or on purpose. This risk exists because the elmcity service only has trust relationships with curators. They, in turn, have trust relationships with the contributors who provide calendar feed URLs. Contributors who want to use Facebook as a source for public events that flow through an elmcity hub will give their Export URLs to curators. And curators, accidentally or on purpose, could leak those URLs.

This post is already too long, so I’ll say elsewhere why I think you probably shouldn’t use Facebook as the authoritative source for public events that you want to promote. But if you understand the mechanism I’ve explained here, and if you think the risk/reward tradeoff is acceptable, then you’re welcome to use it. If you’re an elmcity curator who has designated a Twitter account for private communication with the service, here’s the new command you can send to add a Facebook feed from one of your contributors:

add_fb_feed id=UID key=KEY who=USER [category=CATEGORY]

Usage is as follows:

add_fb_feed is a required verb

id=UID is a required parameter. Replace UID with the xxx from uid=xxx in your Facebook Export URL

key=KEY is a required parameter. Replace KEY with the yyy from key=yyy in your Facebook Export URL

who=USER is a required parameter. Replace USER with your Facebook name, using + instead of the space character.

category=CATEGORY is an optional parameter. You can use a single term or a comma-separated list of terms. These will appear as tags on each event flowing from the feed through the hub.

If you send a bogus or missing command verb, or id, or key, you’ll get a Twitter message describing what went wrong.

How George Bailey can save Delicious

Every Christmas we watch It’s a Wonderful Life. This year I’ll be imagining Jimmy Stewart saying, to a panicked crowd of users rushing for the exits, “Now, hold on, it’ll work out, we’ve just got to stick together.”

If you’ve never used the social bookmarking service that began life with the whimsical domain name, here’s the Wikipedia summary. The service began in 2003, and by 2004 had transformed my work practices more profoundly than almost anything else before or since. I’ve written scores of essays explaining how and why. Here are some of my favorites:

2004: Collaborative knowledge gardening

2005: Language evolution with (screencast)

2005: Collaborative filtering with

2006: is a database

2007: Discovering and teaching principles of information management

2007: Social information management

2008: Twine,, and event-driven service integration

2008: Databasing trusted feeds with

2008: Why and how to blurb your social bookmarks

2009: Collaborative curation as a service

Since the now-infamous leak of an internal Yahoo! slide naming delicious as one of a set of doomed services, there’s been some great gallows humor. Ed Kohler:

The easiest way to shut down Wikileaks would be to have Yahoo! acquire it.

And Anil Dash:

It seems like @pinboardIN is the most successful product Yahoo!’s had a hand in launching in five years. Congrats, @baconmeteor.

Anil is referring to, one of several delicious-like services to which delicious users began fleeing. Pinboard is notable for a clever model in which the price of a lifetime subscription rises with the number of users. When I first checked yesterday morning, that price was $6.90. I signed up at $7.24. Neil Saunders started tracking it at #pinboardwatch; it got to $7.74 last night; it’s $8.17 now. Maybe I should’ve bought 100 accounts at $6.90!

But seriously, this is a moment to reflect on how we can preserve the value we collectively create online. As some of you know, I have made heavy use of delicious in my own service, elmcity. When the news broke, Jeremy Dunck asked: “Bad news for elmcity, huh?”

Actually that’s the least of my worries. The folks who curate elmcity calendar hubs use delicious to configure their hubs, and to list the feeds aggregated by their hubs. It’ll be a bit inconvenient to transition to another bookmarking service, but it’s no big deal. And of course all the existing data is cached in an Azure database; the elmcity service doesn’t depend on live access to delicious.

The real concern is far broader. Millions of us have used delicious to create named sets of online resources. We can recreate our individual collections in other services, but not our collaborative efforts. In Delicious’s Data Policy is Like Setting a Museum on Fire, Marshall Kirkpatrick writes:

One community of non-profit technologists has been bookmarking links with the tag “NPTech” for years – they have 24,028 links categorized as relevant for organizations seeking to change the world and peoples’ lives using technology. Wouldn’t it be good to have that body of data, metadata and curated resources available elsewhere once Delicious is gone?

The problem with “elsewhere,” of course, is that there’s no elsewhere immune to the same business challenges faced by Yahoo!. Maybe now is the time for a new model to emerge. Except it wouldn’t be new at all. The Building and Loan service that George Bailey ran in It’s a Wonderful Life wasn’t a bank, it was a coop, and its customers were shareholders. Could delicious become the first user-owned Internet service? Could we users collectively make Yahoo! an offer, buy in as shareholders, and run the service ourselves?

It’s bound to happen sooner or later. My top Christmas wish: delicious goes first.

Automatic shifting and manual steering on the information superhighway

I’d like to thank the folks at the Berkman Center for listening to my talk yesterday, and for feedback that was skeptical about the very points I know that I need to sharpen. The talk is available here in multiple audio and video formats. The slides are separately available on SlideShare. There are many ways to use these materials. If I wanted to listen and watch, here are the methods I’d choose. For a tethered experience I’d download the original PowerPoint deck from SlideShare and watch it along with the MP3 audio. For an untethered experience I’d look at the slides first, and then dump the MP3 onto a portable player and head out for a run. Finally, if I lacked the time or inclination for either of those modes, but was still curious about the talk, I’d read Ethan Zuckerman’s excellent write-up.

After the talk we had a stimulating discussion that raised questions some of us have been kicking around forever in the blogosphere:

  1. Do “real people” — that is, people who do not self-identify as geeks — actually use feed syndication?

  2. If not directly and intentionally, do they use it indirectly and unconsciously by way of systems that syndicate feeds without drawing attention to the concept?

  3. Does the concept matter?

The third question is the big one for me. From the moment that the blogosphere booted up, I thought that pub/sub syndication — formerly a topic of interest only to engineers of networked information systems — was now becoming a tool that everyone would want to master in order to actively engage with networked information systems. Mastering the principles of pub/sub syndication wasn’t like mastering the principles of automotive technology in order to drive a car. It was, instead, like knowing how to steer the car — a form of knowledge that we don’t fully intuit. I have been driving for over 35 years. But there are things I never learned until we sent our kids to Skid School and participated in the training.

I’ll admit I have waffled on this. After convincing Gardner Campbell that we should expect people to know how to steer their cars on the information superhighway, I began to doubt that was possible. Maybe people don’t just need automatic transmission. Maybe they need automatic steering too. Maybe I was expecting too much.

But Gardner was unfazed by my doubt. He continued to believe that people need to learn how to steer, and he created a Skid School in order to teach them. It’s called the New Media Studies Faculty Seminar, it’s taking place at Baylor University where Gardner teaches, at partner schools, and from wherever else like minds are drawn by the tags that stitch together this distributed and syndicated conversation. Here’s Gardner reflecting on the experience:

Friday, I was scanning the blog feeds to read the HCC blogs about the discussion. Then I clicked over to some of the other sites’ blogs to see what was happening there. Oops! I was brought up short. I thought I’d clicked on a St. Lawrence University blog post. It sure looked like their site. But as I read the post, it was clear to me something had gone wrong. I was reading a description of the discussion at HCC, which had included very thoughtful inquiries into the relationship of information, knowledge, and wisdom. Then I realized that in fact I was reading a description of the HCC discussion — because that’s what they’d talked about at St. Lawrence University as well.

And now my links bear witness to that connection, tell my story of those connections, and enact them anew.

This property of the link — that it is both map and territory — is one I’ve blogged about before (a lucky blog for me, as it elicited three of my Favorite Comments Ever). But now I see something much larger coming into view. Each person enacts the network. At the same time, the network begins to represent and enact the infinities within the persons who make it up. The inside is bigger than the outside. Each part contains the whole, and also contributes to the whole.

The New Media Studies Faculty Seminar has given some educators a lesson in how to steer their own online destinies, and a Skid School course on which to practice their new skills. That pretty much sums up my ambition for the elmcity project too. Automatic transmissions are great. But we really do need to teach folks how to steer.

Jazz in Madison, Wisconsin: A case study in curation

The elmcity project’s newest hub is called Madison Jazz. The curator, Bob Kerwin, will be aggregating jazz-related events in Madison, Wisconsin. Bob thought about creating a Where hub, which merges events from Eventful, Upcoming, and Eventbrite with a curated list of iCalendar feeds. That model works well for hyperlocal websites looking to do general event coverage, like the Falls Church Times and Berkeleyside. But Bob didn’t want to cast that kind of wide net. He just wanted to enumerate jazz-related iCalendar feeds.

So he created a What hub — that is, a topical rather than a geographic hub. It has a geographic aspect, of course, because it serves the jazz scene in Madison. But in this case the topical aspect is dominant. So to create the hub, Bob spun up the delicious account MadisonJazz. And in its metadata bookmark he wrote what=JazzInMadisonWI instead of where=Madison,WI.

If you want to try something like this, for any kind of local or regional or global topic, the first thing you’ll probably want to do — as Bob did — is set up your own iCalendar feed where you record events not otherwise published in a machine-readable way. You can use Google Calendar, or Live Calendar, or Outlook, or Apple iCal, or any other application that publishes an iCalendar feed.

If you are very dedicated, you can enter invidual future events on that calendar. But it’s hard, for me anyway, to do that kind of data entry for single events that will just scroll off the event horizon in a few weeks or months. So for my own hub I use this special kind of curatorial calendar mainly for recurring events. As I use it, the effort invested in data entry pays recurring dividends and builds critical mass for the calendar.

Next, you’ll want to look for existing iCalendar feeds to bookmark. Most often, these are served up by Google Calendar. Other sources include Drupal-based websites, and an assortment of other content management systems. Sadly there’s no easy way to search for these. You have to visit websites relevant to the domain you’re curating, look for the event sections on websites, and then look for iCalendar feeds as alternatives to the standard web views. These are few and far between. Teaching event sponsors how and why to produce such feeds is a central goal of the elmcity project.

When a site does offer a Google Calendar feed, it will often be presented as seen here on the Surrounded By Reality blog. The link to its calendar of events points to this Google Calendar. Its URL looks like this:


That’s not the address of the iCalendar feed, though. It is, instead, a variant that looks like this:


To turn URL #1 into URL #2, just transfer the email address into an URL like #2. Alternatively, click the Google icon on the HTML version to add the calendar to the Google Calendar app, then open its settings, right-click the green ICAL button, and capture the URL of the iCalendar feed that way.

Note that even though a What hub will not automatically aggregate events from Eventful or Upcoming, these services can sometimes provide iCalendar feeds that you’ll want to include. For example, Upcoming lists the Cafe Montmartre as a wine bar and jazz cafe. If there were future events listed there, Bob could add the iCalendar feed for that venue to his list of MadisonJazz bookmarks.

Likewise for Eventful. One of the Google Calendars that Bob Kerwin has collected is for Restaurant Magnus. It is also a Eventful venue that provides an iCalendar feed for its upcoming schedule. If Restaurant Magnus weren’t already publishing its own feed, the Eventful feed would be an alternate source Bob could collect.

For curators of musical events, MySpace is another possible source of iCalendar feeds. For example, the band dot to dot management plays all around the midwest, but has a couple of upcoming shows in Madison. I haven’t been able to persuade anybody at MySpace to export iCalendar feeds for the zillions of musical calendars on its site. But although the elmcity service doesn’t want to be in the business of scraping web pages, it does make exceptions to that rule, and MySpace is one of them. So Bob could bookmark that band’s MySpace web page, filter the results to include only shows in Madison, and bookmark the resulting iCalendar feed.

This should all be much more obvious than it is. Anyone publishing event info online should expect that any publishing tool used for the purpose will export an iCalendar feed. Anyone looking for event info should expect to find it in an iCalendar feed. Anyone wishing to curate events should expect to find lots of feeds that can be combined in many ways for many purposes.

Maybe, as more apps and services support OData, and as more people become generally familiar with the idea of publishing, subscribing to, and mashing up feeds of data … maybe then the model I’m promoting here will resonate more widely. A syndicated network of calendar feeds is just a special case of something much more general: a syndicated network of data feeds. That’s a model lots of people need to know and apply.

Where is the money going?

Over the weekend I was poking around in the recipient-reported data at I filtered the New Hampshire spreadsheet down to items for my town, Keene, and was a bit surprised to find no descriptions in many cases. Here’s the breakdown:

# of awards 25
# of awards with descriptions 05 20%
# of awards without descriptions 20 80%
$ of awards 10,940,770
$ of awards with descriptions 1,260,719 12%
$ of awards without descriptions 9,680,053 88%

In this case, the half-dozen largest awards aren’t described:

award amount funding agency recipient description
EE00161 2,601,788 Sothwestern Community Services Inc
S394A090030 1,471,540 Keene School District
AIP #3-33-SBGP-06-2009 1,298,500 City of Keene
2W-33000209-0 1,129,608 City of Keene
2F-96102301-0 666,379 City of Keene
2F-96102301-0 655,395 City of Keene
0901NHCOS2 600,930 Sothwestern Community Services Inc
2009RKWX0608 459,850 Department of Justice KEENE, CITY OF The COPS Hiring Recovery Program (CHRP) provides funding directly to law enforcement agencies to hire and/or rehire career law enforcement officers in an effort to create and preserve jobs, and to increase their community policing capacity and crime prevention efforts.
NH36S01050109 413,394 Department of Housing and Urban Development KEENE HOUSING AUTHORITY ARRA Capital Fund Grant. Replacement of roofing, siding, and repair of exterior storage sheds on 29 public housing units at a family complex

That got me wondering: Where does the money go? So I built a little app that explores ARRA awards for any city or town: For most places, it seems, the ratio of awards with descriptions to awards without isn’t quite so bad. In the case of Philadelphia, for example, “only” 27% of the dollars awarded ($280 million!) are not described.

But even when the description field is filled in, how much does that tell us about what’s actually being done with the money? We can’t expect to find that information in a spreadsheet at The knowledge is held collectively by the many people who are involved in the projects funded by these awards.

If we want to materialize a view of that collective knowledge, the ARRA data provides a useful starting point. Every award is identified by an award number. These are, effectively, webscale identifiers — that is, more-or-less unique tags we could use to collate newspaper articles, blog entries, tweets, or any other online chatter about awards.

To promote this idea, the app reports award numbers as search strings. In Keene, for example, the school district got an award for $1.47 million. The award number is S394A090030. If you search for that you’ll find nothing but a link back to a page entitled Where is the Money Going? can’t bootstrap itself out of this circular trap. But if we use the tags that it has helpfully provided, we might be able to find out a lot more about where the money is going.